Canadian Citizenship Exam - Questions and Answers

All the questions and answers listed in this post are covered in more detail in Discover Canada (Citizen Study Guide). This article mainly covers the topics at the federal level (Canada-wise).

For questions and answers specific to your province or territory, just click on the corresponding link below:

Provinces of Canada (10 in total):

Territories of Canada (3 in total):

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Which federal political party is in power?
Liberal Party.
Which party is the Official Opposition at the federal level?
The Conservative Party.
Who is the leader of the Federal Official Opposition Party?
Andrew Scheer.
Name all the federal political parties in the House of Commons and their leaders.
Conservative(Andrew Scheer), NDP (Jagmeet Signh), Liberal (Justin Trudeau), Bloc Quebecois (Mario Beaulieu), Green Party (Elizabeth May).
What is the name of the Prime Minister of Canada and his/her party?
Justin Trudeau (Liberal Party).
Who was the first Prime Minister of Canada?
Sir John A. Macdonald.
What is the name of the Royal Anthem of Canada?
God Save the Queen (or King).
What is the name of the Governor General?
Julie Payette.
Who are the Aboriginal peoples of Canada?
The first people to live in Canada.
What are the three main groups of Aboriginal peoples?
First Nations, Métis and Inuit.
Who are the Métis?
A distinct people of mixed Aboriginal and European ancestry.
Who were the United Empire Loyalists?
Settlers who came to Canada from the United States during and after the American Revolution.
What does Confederation mean?
Joining of provinces to make a new country.
What year was Confederation?
Which provinces first formed Confederation?
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and the Province of Canada.
Which was the last province to join Canada?
When is Canada Day and what does it celebrate?
We celebrate the anniversary of Confederation July 1st of each year.
When did the British North America Act come into effect?
Why is the Constitution Act of 1982 important in Canadian history?
It allows Canada to change the Constitution without asking approval of the British Government.
What part of the Constitution legally protects the basic rights and freedoms of all Canadians?
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
When did the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms become part of the Canadian Constitution?
Name two fundamental freedoms protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms:
Freedom of religion and freedom of speech.
Name three legal rights protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms:
Right to live and work anywhere in Canada, right to a fair trial, and right to protection against discrimination.
What is the meaning of the Remembrance Day poppy?
To remember the sacrifice of Canadians who have served or died in wars up to the present day.
When is Remembrance Day celebrated?
November 11th.
What does equality under the law mean?
Being treated with equal dignity and respect, and having equal rights to speak out and express ideas.
Name six responsibilities of citizenship:
Vote, help others, care for our heritage and environment, obey Canada’s laws, respect the rights of others, eliminate injustice.
What is an example of how you can show responsibility by participating in your community?
Join a community group.
Lists four rights Canadian citizens have:
Right to challenge unlawful detention, vote, apply for a Canadian passport, enter and leave Canada freely.
What will you promise when you take the Oath of Citizenship?
Pledge allegiance to the Queen, observe the laws of Canada and fulfill the duties of a Canadian.
What are the two official languages of Canada?
English and French.
What is an example of where English and French have equal status in Canada?
In the Parliament of Canada.
Where do most French-speaking Canadians live?
Which province has the most bilingual Canadians?
Which province is the only officially bilingual province?
New Brunswick.
What does the Canadian flag look like?
White with a red border on each end and a red maple leaf in the centre.
What song is Canada’s national anthem?
O Canada.
Give the first two lines of Canada’s national anthem.
O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command.
From where does the name “Canada” come?
From “kanata”, The Huron-Iroquois word for village.
Which animal is an official symbol of Canada?
The beaver.
What is the population of Canada?
About 33 millions.
On what date did Nunavut become a territory?
April 1st, 1999.
What are the three main types of industry in Canada?
Natural resources, manufacturing and services.
In what industry do most Canadian work?
What country is Canada’s largest trading partner?
The United States of America.
Which region is known as the industrial and manufacturing heartland of Canada?
Central Canada.
Which region of Canada is known for both its fertile agricultural land and valuable energy resources?
Prairie Provinces.
Who is Canada’s Head of State?
Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.
Who is the Queen’s representative in Canada?
Governor General of Canada.
What do you call the Sovereign’s representative in the provinces?
Lieutenant – Governor.
What is Canada’s system of government called?
Parliamentary government.
What are the three parts of Parliament?
The Queen, the House of Commons and the Senate.
What do you call a law before it is passed?
A Bill.
How does a bill become a law?
Approval by a majority in the House of Commons and Senate and finally the Governor General.
How are the Members of Parliament chosen?
Elected by Canadian citizens.
Who do Members of Parliament represent?
Everyone who lives in his or her electoral district.
What are the tree levels of government in Canada?
Federal, Provincial and Territorial, Municipal (local).
Name two responsibilities of the federal government:
National defense and foreign policy.
What is the government of all of Canada called?
How many electoral districts are there in Canada?
Who has the right to vote in federal elections?
A Canadian citizen, 18 years or older and on voters list.
What three requirements must you meet in order to vote in a federal election?
Canadian citizen, 18 years or older and on the list of electors.
When asked, who must you tell how you voted in a federal election?
No one.
What do you mark on a federal ballot?
An “X”.
How is the government formed after a federal election?
The party with the most elected representatives becomes the party in power. The leader of this party becomes the Prime Minister.
How is the Prime Minister chosen?
The leader of the party with the most elected representatives becomes the Prime Minister.
When must federal elections be held?
On the third Monday in October every four years following the most recent general election.
Which party becomes the Official Opposition?
The party with the second most MPs.
What is the role of the opposition parties?
To oppose or try to improve government proposals.
What is a voter information card?
A form that tells you when and where to vote.
Who has the right to run as a candidate in federal elections?
Any Canadian citizen who is at least 18 years old.
Who do Canadians vote for in a federal election?
A candidate they want to represent them in Parliament.
What was the Women’s Suffrage Movement?
The effort by women to achieve the right to vote.
In the 1960s, Quebec experienced an era of rapid change. What is this called?
The Quiet Revolution.
Which of the following is not a feature of Canada’s system of government: Dictatorship, a Federal state, parliamentary democracy and Constitution Monarchy?
Who have major responsibilities on First Nations reserves?
Band chiefs and councillors.
What is Canada’s national winter sport?
How many Canadians have been awarded the Victoria Cross (V.C.), the highest honour available to Canadians?
What is meant by the equality of women and men?
Men and women are equal under the law.
Who are the founding peoples of Canada?
Aboriginal, French and British.
What does the word “Inuit” mean?
“The people” in the Inuktitut language.
What percentage of Aboriginal people are First Nations?
What did the Canadian Pacific Railway symbolize?
What does it mean to say Canada is a constitutional monarchy?
Canada’s Head of State is a hereditary Sovereign (Queen or King) who reigns in accordance with the Constitution.
What is the highest military honour a Canadian can receive?
Victoria Cross.
In Canada, are you obliged to tell others how you voted?
No, but you may choose to discuss how you voted with others.
Who was Sir Louis-Hippolyte La Fontaine?
A champion of democracy and French language rights and the first leader of a responsible government in the Canadas.
What does the term “responsible government” mean?
The ministers of the Crown must have the support of a majority of the elected representatives in order to govern.
In Canada, are you allowed to question the police about their service or conduct?
Yes, if you feel the need to.
What is the role of the courts in Canada?
To settle disputes.
When you vote on Election Day, what do you do?
Go to the voting station with your voter’s card and ID, mark an X in the circle next to the candidate of your choice, fold the ballot and present it to the pools officials.
Name two key documents that contain our rights and freedoms:
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and Magna Carta (the Great Charter of Freedoms)
What is the difference between the role of the Sovereign and that of the Prime Minister?
The Sovereign is the guardian of Constitutional freedoms; the Prime Minister selects the Cabinet ministers and is responsible of operations and policy of government.
What is the significance of the discovery of insulin by Sir Frederick Banting and Charles Best?
Insulin has saved 16 million lives worldwide.
What are some examples of taking responsibility for yourself and your family?
Getting a job, taking care of one’s family, and working diligently in keeping with one’s abilities.
Which three countries are signatories to NAFTA?
Canada, Mexico and the United States.
What was the significance of June 6th, 1944, invasion of Normandy?
Canadians made a significant contribution to the defeat of Nazism and Fascism in Europe during the Second World War.
Gloria is a new immigrant in Canada. What law allows her to take up jobs at par with a man?
Equality of woman and men.
Why is the battle of Vimy Ridge important?
Canadian Corps secured its reputation for valor and bravery.
What is a majority government?
When the party in power holds at least half of the seats in the House of Commons.
Which province is the main producer of pulp and paper and hydro-electricity?
A Member of Parliament from Toronto announces that she will spend her weekend in her electoral district. This mean she would be:
In the part of Toronto where she was elected.
What is the Queen’s representative in the Territories called?
How is a Cabinet Minister chosen?
By the Prime Minister.
The Canadian Coat of Arms and motto is “A Mari Usque Ad Mare.” This means:
From sea to sea.
Canada has three territories and how many provinces?
Why is trade with other counties important to Canada?
It enhances our economy and raises our standard of living.
How are the Senators chosen?
They are chosen by the Prime Minister and appointed by the Governor General.
What should you do if you do not receive a voter information card telling you when and where to vote?
Call Elections Canada or visit their website.
After a federal election, which party forms the new government?
The party with the most elected representatives becomes the party in power.
Which of the following statements about residential schools is NOT true?
  • [NOT TRUE] The schools were welcomed by the Aboriginal people.
  • [TRUE] The federal government placed many Aboriginal children in residential schools to educate and assimilate them into mainstream Canadian culture.
  • [TRUE] The schools were poorly funded and inflicted hardship on the student.
  • [TRUE] Aboriginal language and cultural practices were mostly prohibited.
Who are the Quebecers?
People of Quebec.
Who are the Acadians?
The descendants of French colonists who began settling in what are now the Maritime Provinces in 1604.
What is the largest religious affiliation in Canada?
Roman Catholic.
Which Act granted, for the first time in Canada, legislative assemblies elected by the people?
The Constitutional Act of 1791.
Describe with one sentence the War of 1812.
The USA invaded Canada and was defeated, which ensured that Canada would remain independent of the United States.
Who was the first leader of a responsible government in the Canadas in 1849?
Sir Louis-Hippolyte La Fontaine.
Who was Sir Sam Steele?
A great frontier hero, Mounted Policeman and soldier of the Queen.
Who had played an important part in building the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR)?
Chinese railroad workers.
What is the “Head Tax”?
Race-based entry fee charged for Chinese entering Canada.
Who is General Sir Arthur Currie?
Canada’s greatest soldier in the First World War.
Approximately how many Canadians served in the First World War?
More than 600,000.
What three oceans border Canada?
Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific.
What is the capital city of Canada?
Name the five regions of Canada:
Atlantic, Central, Prairie, West Coast and North.
What are the provinces of Central Canada and their capital cities?
Ontario (Toronto) and Quebec (Quebec City).
What are the provinces of the Atlantic region and their capital cities?
Newfoundland and Labrador (St. John’s), Nova Scotia (Halifax), New Brunswick (Fredericton) and Prince Eduard Island (Charlottetown).
What are the Prairie Provinces and their capital cities?
Alberta (Edmonton), Saskatchewan (Regina) and Manitoba (Winnipeg).
What are the territories of Northern Canada and their capital cities?
Yukon Territory (Whitehorse), Northwest Territories (Yellowknife), and Nunavut (Iqaluit)
Which region covers more than one-third of Canada?
Northern Territories.
In which region do more than half the people in Canada live?
Central Canada.
One third of all Canadians live in which province?
Where are the Great Lakes?
Between Ontario and the United States.
Where are the Parliament Buildings located?
Which country borders Canada on the South?
United States of America.
Which province in Canada is the smallest in land size?
Prince Eduard Island.
What is a major river in Quebec?
St. Lawrence River.

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